The Toltecs had a breed of dog called the Techichi. This dog was small not tiny and of heavy boned structure. The Techichi is the progenitor of the Chihuahua that we know today.
There has been speculation regarding the discovery of the earliest specimans. There is a letter from Christopher Columbus reporting that he found a small kind of dogs. Archaeologists have discovered remains of this breed in human graves in Mexico and in parts of the United States.
Chihuahuas are connected with the worship of deities , with travel of the soul to the underworld, and in relation to the human body. The breed was believed to have the power to ward off evil spirits and guide the dead to their destination.
The Smoothcoat chihuahua are the most numerous in the United States.
The chihuahua is clannish, recognizing and preferring its own kind.
Midget is the name of the first chihuahua registered by the AKC in 1904.
Chihuahuas are the worlds smallest dog. At maturity they are generally between 2 to 6 pounds.
The average life span is 13 to 15 years and many living well into their late teens.
Chihuahuas are born with floppy ears which begin to stand as they grow.
Chihuahua Weight Chart
The Chihuahua weight chart is great to use as a guide to estimate adult weight. Used only as a guide, because many things can affect the adult weight as a puppy. Weight estimates before eight weeks are often inaccurate.
The Chihuahua weight chart is © Colonel V. D'Oyly Harmer. The weight chart is from a book called "The Complete Chihuahua Encyclopedia" by Hilary Harmar, published in 1972 by the Arco Publishing Company, Inc., New York, NY.
Official Standard for the Chihuahua
Approved September 11, 1990
General Appearance: A graceful, alert, swift-moving little dog with saucy expression, compact and with terrior-like qualities of temperament.
Size, Proportion, Substance.
Weight : A well balanced little dog not to exceed 6 pounds. Proportion: The body is off-square; hence slightly longer when measured from the point of shoulder to point of buttocks, than height at the withers. Somewhat shorter bodies are preferred in males..
Disqualification- Any dog over 6 pounds in weight.
Head: A well rounded “apple dome” skull with or without molera. Expression- Saucy. Eyes- Full but not protruding, balanced , set well apart luminous dark or luminous ruby.( light eyes in blond or white colored dogs permissible.) Ears: Large, erect type ears , held more upright when alert, but flaring to the sides at a 45 degree angle when in ropose, giving breadth between the ears. Muzzle: Moderately short, slightly pointed. Cheeks and jaws lean. Nose: Self colored in blond types, pink nose permissible. Bite: Level or scissors. Overshot, or undershot bite or any distortion of the bite or jaw, should be penalized as a serious fault..
Disqualification - Broken down or cropped ears..
Neck, Topline, Body.
Neck: Slightly arched, gracefully sloping into lean shoulders. Topline: Level. Body: Ribs rounded and well sprung ( but not too much “ barrel shaped”). Tail: Moderately long, carried sickle either up or out, or in a loop over the back, with tip just touching the back. ( Never tucked between legs)..
Disqualifications - Cropped tail, bobtail..
Shoulders: Lean, sloping into a slightly broadening support above straight forelegs that set well under, giving free play at the elbows. Shoulders should be well up, giving balance and soundness, sloping into a level back. ( Never down or low.) This gives a chestiness, and strength of forequarters, yet not of the “bulldog” chest. Feet: A small dainty foot with toes well split up but not spread, pads cushioned. ( Neither the hare nor the cat foot.) Pasterns: Fine..
Muscular with hocks well apart, neither out nor in, well let down, firm and sturdy. The feet are as in front..
Smoothcoat: the coat should be of soft texture, close and glosssy. ( Heavier coats with undercoats permissible). Coat placed well over body with ruff on neck preferred, and more scanty on head and ears. Hair on tail preferred furry. Longcoats: The coat should be of a soft texture, either flat or slightly curly, with undercoat preferred. Ears: Fringed. ( Heavily fringed ears may be tipped slightly if due to the fringes and not to weak ear leather, never down) Tail: Full and long ( as a plume.) Feathering on feet and legs, pants on hind legs and large ruff on the neck desired and preferred.
Disqualifications - In Longcoats too thin coat that resembles bareness..
Any color Solid, marked or splashed..
The Chihuahua should move swiftly with a firm, sturdy action, with good reach in the front equal to the drive from the rear. From the rear, the hocks remain parallel to each other, and the foot fall of the rear legs follows directly behind that of the forelegs. The legs, both front and rear, will converge slightly toward a central line of gravity as speed increases. The side view shows good, strong drive in the rear and plenty of reach in the front, with head carried high. The topline should remain firm and the backline level as the dog moves. .
Alert, with terrior like qualities..
Any dog over 6 pounds in weight..
Broken down or cropped ears..
Cropped tail, bobtail..
In long coats, too thin coat that resembles bareness..
Standards are written by breed experts, and they depict the ideal specimen of each breed. Rarely is there a dog that measures up to every specification of its standard. Instead the standard guides breeders, dog show judges, and students of the breed. The offical standard for each breed and any revision of the standard originates with the parent club( Chihuahua club of America) The standard is submitted to the AKC Board of Directors for approval.
Hypoglycemia Requires Quick Intervention in Toy Breeds
Toy-breed dogs are not only at risk for hypoglycemia, they can die from the low blood sugar disorder if they do not receive prompt treatment.
When a dog’s blood sugar, or glucose, level drops, it can affect neurological function. Disorientation, tremors and coma may occur. Normally, hormones stimulate the breakdown of stored glycogen to supply the brain and other tissues with fuel. In toy breeds, this process may not happen fast enough, and hypoglycemia results.
Juvenile hypoglycemia occurs in puppies less than 3 months of age. Because puppies have not fully developed the ability to regulate blood glucose concentration and have a high requirement for glucose, they are vulnerable. Stress, cold, malnutrition and intestinal parasites also may trigger juvenile hypoglycemia.
Signs of hypoglycemia are loss of appetite, extreme lethargy, lack of coordination, trembling, muscle twitching, weakness, seizures, and discoloration of skin and gums. Most dogs will not eat or drink when they are in low sugar shock.
Simple cases of hypoglycemia can occur when a dog is overly active with too much time between meals or fasts before vigourous exercise. Hypoglycemia also may occur secondary to another condition. Other causes include Addison’s disease, insulin-producing tumors of the pancreas, severe liver disease, and glycogen storage diseases. If an underlying illness causes hypoglycemia, veterinarians first treat this condition.
Veterinarians are likely to conduct a complete medical history and physical examination to determine the cause in dogs that develop chronic hypoglycemia. Other tests include a complete blood count, blood glucose concentration, urinalysis, routine biochemistry, and blood insulin concentration.
An ultrasound may be taken of the abdomen to try and identify a pancreatic or other type of tumor that could cause hypoglycemia.
Puppies and adult dogs that appear to be in a stupor or coma during a hypoglycemic attack should immediately be given sugar water or an oral concentrated solution of glucose, such as corn syrup or Nutri-Cal. Owners of toy breeds should have a glucose source readily available. In an emergency situation, owners should dab sugar water on or under the tongue. The sugar is absorbed directly through the tissue into the bloodstream.
Breeders and owners should proactively look for signs of hypoglycemia in their puppies and should frequently feed toy-breed puppies as a preventive measure. Breeders also are encouraged to include information about hypoglycemia in packets they send with puppies going to new homes. Sharing information may help save a dog’s life.
Signs of Hypoglycemia
Loss of appetite
Lack of coordination
Stupor or coma
Hydrocephalus in Dogs
Hydrocephalus is an expansion or abnormal dilation of the ventricular system due to an increased volume of spinal fluid. In this case, the ventricles that are affected are those connected with the spinal cord. The abnormal dilation may affect only on one side of the brain, or both sides. It may involve the entire ventricular system (a set of hollow structures in the brain continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord), or only elements next to a site of ventricular system obstruction.
There are two types of hydrocephalus – obstructive and compensatory. Both compensatory and obstructive hydrocephalus can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired.
In the case of obstructive hydrocephalus, spinal fluid accumulates due to an obstruction along the normal circulatory pattern (noncommunicating hydrocephalus), or the fluid accumulates at the fluid resorption site near the meningeal arachnoid villi (communicating hydrocephalus). The meninges are composed of three membranous envelopes – the pia mater, which lies against the brain; the arachnoid, the middle layer; and the dura mater, the outer, thicker layer closest tot he skull – that surround the brain and spinal cord. Intracranial (within the skull) pressure may be high or normal. However, clinical signs may be noted when intracranial pressure is normal.
Congenital obstruction causes primary obstructive hydrocephalus. The most common site of obstruction is at the level of the mesencephalic (middle brain) aqueduct. Prenatal (before birth) infections may cause aqueductal stenosis (narrowing) with subsequent hydrocephalus. This may result in considerable disruption of the architecture of the brain.
Acquired obstruction results in secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. It is caused by tumors, abscesses, and inflammatory diseases (including inflammation resulting from hemorrhage that has been caused by traumatic injuries or other causes of bleeding). The sites of obstruction include the interventricular foramina (channels that connect the paired lateral ventricles with the third ventricle at the midline of the brain), the mesencephalic aqueduct, or the lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle.
With compensatory hydrocephalus, spinal fluid fills the space where the nervous system’s functional parts have been destroyed and/or failed to develop. Intracranial (within the brain) pressure is a normal result. This is ventricular dilation incidental to the primary disease.
Overproduction of spinal fluid can also cause hydrocephalus. However, this is rare. A tumor in the eye may also cause water on the brain.
The congenital form of hydrocephalus is more likely to occur in small and brachycephalic dogs: bulldogs, Chihuahuas, Maltese, Pomeranians, Toy Poodles, Yorkshire Terriers, Lhasa Apsos, Cairn Terriers, Boston Terriers, Pugs, and Pekingese. It is an inherited disease in Yorkshire terriers. Additionally, there is a high incidence of normal adult beagles that are found to have enlarged ventricular systems and yet are clinically without symptoms. Acquired hydrocephalus can occur in all breeds.
Congenital hydrocephalus usually becomes apparent at a few weeks up to a year of age. Acute onset of signs can occur in dogs with previously undiagnosed congenital hydrocephalus. The exact cause of this uncertain. Acquired hydrocephalus can occur at any age.
Symptoms and Types
May be without symptoms
Wetting or soiling in the house
A large dome-shaped head (due to intracranial swelling)
Animal may arch its head back and extend all four legs
Parainfluenza virus (dogs)
Exposure to teratogens (drugs that interfere with fetal development) in utero
Brain hemorrhage in newborn after difficult labor
Vitamin A deficiency
Intracranial inflammatory diseases
Masses in the cranium
You will need to provide your veterinarian with a thorough and detailed history of your dog's health, including any information you have about its birth and parentage, the onset of symptoms, and any possible incidents, including minor falls, that might have preceded this condition. Your veterinarian will perform a complete physical exam on your dog, with a complete blood profile, chemical blood profile, complete blood count, an electrolyte panel, and a urinalysis, in order to effectively rule out or confirm evidence of trauma, infection, or cancer.
Diagnostic imaging is essential. Skull radiographs may help to diagnose congenital hydrocephalus, but computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are best for visualization, enabling your veterinarian to come to a definitive diagnosis.
Other diagnostic tests that can assist in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus are a spinal tap, with a laboratory analysis of the fluid, and an electroencephalogram (EEG) for measuring the brain’s electrical activity.
Your dog will require hospitalization if it is exhibiting severe signs or requires surgery. Those with less severe symptoms may be treated medically on an outpatient basis. Hospitalized patients need to be turned regularly to prevent pressure sores, provided with eye lubricant to protect the eyes from drying out, and properly positioned to prevent aspiration pneumonia.
Living and Management
Your veterinarian will schedule follow-up appointments with you depending on the severity of your dog's condition after hospitalization. How well your dog recovers will depend on the cause and severity of the illness. If your dog has a mild congenital form of hydrocephalus, there is a good prognosis and it may require only occasional medical treatment to keep it under control.
BASIC THINGS YOU WILL NEED...
We feed and recommend Royal Canin.
Your puppy is either eating Royal Canin Mini Starter or
Royal Canin Chihuahua Puppy.
____Bottled Water - using bottled water greatly minimizes any tear staining.
____Puppy Shampoo & Conditioner
____Puppy Brushing Spray to keep him/her smelling fresh between baths!
____Flea, Tick & Heartworm Medication - REVOLUTION.
____A Puppy Harness ( Toy )
____Nutrical or Forti-Cal in case of low blood sugar ( Hypoglycemia )
____Children's Liquid Dye Free Benadryl (double check NO xylitol is in it!) & 1 ml dosing syringe
____Canned Pumpkin - NOT PIE MIX!
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